Title: Contentious Politics in Toba Samosir: The Toba Batak Movement Opposing the PT. Inti Indorayon Utama Pulp and Rayon Mill in Sosor Ladang-Indonesia (1988 to 2003)
PDF Full Text
Author: Situmorang, Abdul Wahib
Degree: Master of Arts - Southeast Asia Studies, 2003.
Advisor: Michael Malley
This thesis aims to explain the emergence and success of the Toba Batak movement from 1988 to 2003 in closing a pulp and rayon mill, owned and operated by PT Inti Indorayon Utama (IIU). It seeks to explain, first, how this movement developed. Second, what factors made this movement successful? In this study, I draw from the literature on social movements, particularly the theory of contentious politics developed by Doug McAdam, Sidney Tarrow and Charles Tilly (2001), to explain the success of the Toba Batak movement to oppose IIU. The theory of contentious politics outlines relevant characteristics of social movements, such as the level of grievance, the legacy of previous protests, the political opportunity structure, the role of brokerage and category formation.
Throughout the research and analysis, the Toba Batak movement succeeded because of the depth of local society’s such as water and air pollution, the powerful legacy of previous protests, a major change in the political opportunity structure, the effective brokarage roles played by local organizations, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), students and intellectuals, and the successful category formation through social sanctions. In this thesis, I applied two methodologies.
The first is participant observations. Since I was a WALHI activist from 1997 to 2003, I had many opportunities to observe the Toba Batak movement and to meet, talk with and interview prominent leaders of protests against IIU. The second methodology was archival research to examine events and actors in the Toba Batak movement. I relied on three kinds of archival information: newspapers and magazines (local, national and international), studies and audit document reports, and articles and books.
Contentious Politics; Toba Samosir; Brokerage; Category Formation; Grievances; Indonesia
Yamada International House, 56 E. Union Street, Athens OH 45701 (740) 593-1840